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One, Two or One and a Half Protocols? An Assessment of Suggested Options for the Legal Form of the Post-2012 Climate Regime

Lutz Morgenstern


gime basically consists of two treaties: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1 adopted in 1992, which has nearly universal membership, and the Kyoto Protocol2 adopted in 1997. The latter treaty obliges developed states listed in Annex I of the UNFCCC to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by the amount inscribed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol.3 However, it only provides for a first commitment period lasting from 2008 to 2012. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish new rules ensuring further e


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