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Compliance Tools for a Global Market Based Measure for Aviation ∙ Designing the Legal Form of a Global Aviation Market Based Measure

Alejandro Piera

International aviation grows at a rate of roughly 5% per year. Its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are forecast to increase annually by 3-4%. States at the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have agreed to develop a global market-based measure (MBM) to regulate GHG emissions from international aviation. This article examines possible legal vehicles used to adopt the global MBM system, and potential enforcement mechanisms, including issues such as transparency, bilateral air services agreement, and the role of key players.

Alejandro Piera is a founding partner at the Asunción-based law firm of Guanes, Heisecke & Piera and a former Permanent Advisor to the Diplomatic Mission of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Alejandro may be contacted at <>.


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