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Through The Desert Towards Fresh Water - Or Just A Fata Morgana?

Wolfgang Obergassel, Christof Arens, Christiane Beuermann, Carsten Elsner, Lukas Hermwille, Nico Kreibich, Hermann E. Ott, Max Schulze-Steinen


The twenty-eighth Conference of the Parties (COP28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Dubai among many other items concluded the first Global Stocktake (GST) under the Paris Agreement. This article discusses the conference's outcomes in the areas of mitigation, loss and damage, adaptation, climate finance, and cooperation under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. The conference arguably made history by for the first time ever recognising the need to “transition away” from fossil fuels, adopting specific targets for the scale-up of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and by operationalising a fund to support developing countries in dealing with loss and damage caused by climate change. However, the legal language in the call for an energy transition is relatively non-committal and the conference failed to underpin the new global objectives with adequate resources. Actual implementation of the Dubai outcomes will therefore to a large extent depend on whether COP29 in Baku, Azerbaijan - already billed as “finance COP” - will be able to cut the Gordian knot of finance.

Wolfgang Obergassel, Co-Head of Research Unit, Wuppertal Institute; Christof Arens, Senior Researcher, Wuppertal Institute; Christiane Beuermann, Vice-Director and Co-Head of Research Unit, Wuppertal Institute; Carsten Elsner, Researcher, Wuppertal Institute; Lukas Hermwille, Co-Head of Research Unit, Wuppertal Institute; Nicolas Kreibich, Senior Researcher, Wuppertal Institute; Hermann E. Ott, University of Sustainable Development / Hochschule für Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde; Max Schulze-Steinen, Junior Researcher, Wuppertal Institute. For correspondence: Wolfgang Obergassel <>, Christof Arens <>, Christiane Beuermann <>, Carsten Elsner <>, Lukas Hermwille <>, Nicolas Kreibich <>, Hermann E. Ott <>, Max Schulze-Steinen <>.


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